Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial intelligence is the process of intelligence being learned, developed and used by machines. While already playing a large role in society, AI is assumed to become a much larger part of the everyday life, with technology advancing and automation becoming more commonplace.

On this topic page, you can find the IAPP’s collection of coverage, analysis and resources covering AI connections to the privacy space.

Featured Resources

EU AI Act Proposal: What could it change?

This LinkedIn Live session discusses proposed changes to the EU Artificial Intelligence Act, similarities with existing regulatory structures, what it could mean for the U.K. data protection regime and more.
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AI and Biometrics Privacy

In this web conference, panelists discuss key developments and trends in the developing area of law, compliance with forthcoming laws, an overview of litigation concerning AI and biometrics.
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Privacy and responsible AI

Artificial intelligence and machine learning are advancing at an unprecedented speed. This article covers how AI/ML systems be used in a responsible and ethical way that deserves the trust of users and society.
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Latest News and Resources

Metaverse and privacy

From Facebook's recent decision to rename itself "Meta" to Epic Games' billion-dollar investment in metaverse technologies, the metaverse has dominated the news and will likely continue to do so over the next several years. To date, there is no universally accepted definition for the term "metaverse" and, for many, it suggests a new but undeveloped future of the internet. According to J.P. Morgan, the metaverse is a seamless convergence of our physical and digital lives, creating a unified, virt... Read More

CEPS publishes EU AI Act report

The Centre for European Policy Studies published a research paper on the proposed EU Artificial Intelligence Act. The authors said an agreement could be struck by mid-2023, but it may hinge on the ability of co-legislators to "converge on key issues such as the definition of AI, the risk classification and associated regulatory remedies, governance arrangements and enforcement rules.” The paper presents eight major recommendations to avoid overlapping regulations if the AI Act passes, including ... Read More

How advanced deep fakes could threaten democracy

Abuse of deep fakes through videos, images and artificial intelligence could pose a threat to democracy, Cincinnati’s 91.7 WVXU FM reports. On the Aug. 8 “Cincinnati Edition” program, the future of deep fakes and the challenge they pose to democratic discourse was examined by Intrust IT Director of Business Growth Dave Hatter, University of Cincinnati School of Public and International Affairs professor and Director Richard Harknett, and Arizona State University School of Computing and Augmented... Read More

Proposed EU AI Act blurs lines between AI developers and data processors under GDPR

The proposed EU Artificial Intelligence Act and its intersections with the EU General Data Protection Regulation could present compliance issues for data compliance officers across the continent, according to IAPP Senior Westin Research Fellow Jetty Tielemans. The AI Act has some similarities with the Digital Services Act and the Digital Markets Act regarding how they clarify the GDPR, Tielemans said during a recent IAPP LinkedIn Live. However, she explained the AI Act differs in that "sensitiv... Read More

UK unveils data reform bill, proposes AI regulation
(IAPP, July 2022)
Microsoft unveils framework for responsible AI
(IAPP, June 2022)
Geopolitical implications of AI and digital surveillance adoption
(Brookings Institution, June 2022)
ICO – AI and Data Protection Risk Toolkit
(ICO, May 2022)
Singapore launches first of its kind AI governance testing framework, toolkit
(IAPP, May 2022)
Report: Ransomware gangs may have resources to hire AI experts
(IAPP, April 2022)
CNIL Guidance – Artificial Intelligence
(CNIL, April 2022)
Clearview AI plans to offer tech to banks, private businesses
(IAPP, April 2022)
Stanford’s 2022 AI Index Report
(Stanford, March 2022)
Inside the EU’s rocky path to regulate artificial intelligence
(IAPP, February 2022)
Clearview AI now features 20 billion facial images
(IAPP, March 2022)
Chinese company develops AI program that predicts when employees will leave job
(IAPP, February 2022)
UK supermarkets rolling out AI-based age verification
(IAPP, February 2022)
UK government rolls out global AI standards initiative
(IAPP, January 2022)
FBI agrees to licensing contract with Clearview AI
(IAPP, January 2022)
NIST releases report on AI risk management framework
(IAPP, December 2021)
FTC takes steps toward privacy, AI rulemaking
(IAPP, December 2021)
Algorithmic Awareness: Conversations with young Canadians about Artificial Intelligence and Privacy
(MediaSmarts, December 2021)
US Department of Defense – Responsible AI Guidelines
(US Department of Defense, November 2021)
Web Conference: AI, Algorithmic Risk and What to Do About It
(IAPP, November 2021)
Web Conference: OK, Computer? Privacy, AI and Automation
(IAPP, November 2021)
Facebook to close its facial recognition system, but will it start a paradigm shift?
(IAPP, November 2021)
NASCIO — AI Meets the Moment: How a Pandemic Shaped AI Adoption in State Government
(NASCIO, October 2021)
Survey: 36% in government sector plan to increase AI investments
(IAPP, October 2021)
Five Things Lawyers Need to Know About AI
(Future of Privacy Forum, October 2021)
Security and Privacy Risks of VR and AR
(Kaspersky, October 2021)
UK details plans for national AI strategy
(IAPP, September 2021)
Web Conference: From Data Compliance to Data Intelligence
(IAPP, September 2021)
Will AI and algorithms truly dictate the future of content?
(IAPP, August 2021)
Gathering Strength, Gathering Storms: The One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence
(Stanford Institute, August 2021)
Hong Kong privacy commissioner publishes AI guidance
(IAPP, August 2021)
DOJ to study use of AI in analyzing prison phone calls
(IAPP, August 2021)
CIPL – ​Delivering Sustainable AI Accountability in Practice
(CIPL, July 2021)
Local facial recognition bans begin to take hold
(IAPP, July 2021)
Web Conference: How to Deal with Facial Recognition and Make it Compliant?
(IAPP, June 2021)
Web Conference: Understanding Machine Learning Technology and Developing A Risk-Based Approach
(IAPP, June 2021)
How to manage privacy and AI risks within the same project
(IAPP, July 2021)
Handbook on Data Protection and Privacy for Developers of Artificial Intelligence in India
(Data Security Council of India, July 2021)
Report: A rise in AI-based toys threatens children’s privacy
(IAPP, July 2021)
Law enforcement using AI software to patrol social media
(IAPP, July 2021)
Web Conference: Humans in the Loop: Building a Culture of Responsible AI
(IAPP, June 2021)
LinkedIn Live: ‘The EU AI Regulation — What’s New and What’s Not?’
(IAPP, June 2021)
Wash. county bans facial recognition use by Sheriff’s Office, government agencies
(IAPP, June 2021)
Global Legal Insights: AI, Machine Learning & Big Data 2021
(Global Legal Insights, May 2021)
How privacy professionals can assess risks in AI, algorithms and automated decision making systems
(IAPP, May 2021)
Machine learning compliance considerations
(IAPP, May 2021)
Why the EU’s AI regulation is a groundbreaking proposal
(IAPP, April 2021)
A look at what’s in the EU’s newly proposed regulation on AI
(IAPP, April 2021)
European Commission on Artificial Intelligence: A European approach to excellence and trust
(European Commission, April 2021)
FTC publishes recommendations on AI
(IAPP, April 2021)
Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality: Privacy and Autonomy Considerations
(Future of Privacy Forum, April 2021)
Documents highlight relationship between NYPD, Clearview AI
(IAPP, April 2021)
Clearview story highlights potential AI collaboration issues between EU, US
(IAPP, April 2021)
Army plans facial recognition at automated checkpoints
(IAPP, April 2021)
The Privacy Expert’s Guide to AI and Machine Learning
(Future of Privacy Forum, March 2021)
AI tech on the rise, getting more personalized
(IAPP, February 2021)
Web Conference: Less Pain, More Gain: How AI Can Cut Data Breach Response Time and Complexity
(IAPP, February 2021)
Researchers’ browser extension uses AI to unearth opt-out links
(IAPP, January 2021)
Global AI projects, local privacy laws embracing privacy by design
(IAPP, January 2021)
United States Government Accountability Office — Artificial Intelligence in Health Care
(U.S. GAO, December 2020)
Ensuring that responsible humans make good AI
(IAPP, December 2020)
Podcast: Carissa Véliz on privacy, AI ethics and democracy
(IAPP, December 2020)
Web Conference: The Face-Off — How Regulators Will Take on Facial Recognition Technology
(IAPP, November 2020)
Web Conference: AI, A Privacy Odyssey: Conducting Privacy Assessments on AI Projects
(IAPP, November 2020)
Web Conference: Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and Discrimination in Health Care and Beyond
(IAPP, October 2020)
What privacy frameworks can teach us for implementing AI
(IAPP, September 2020)
Artificial Intelligence: Privacy Promise or Peril?
(Future of Privacy Forum, August 2020)
When is AI PI? How current and future privacy laws implicate AI and machine learning
(IAPP, July 2020)
Web Conference: Is Privacy Built in to Your Automated Decisions That Use AI?
(IAPP, June 2020)
Deepfake and Fake Videos — How to Protect Yourself?
(Kaspersky, June 2020)
Spanish DPA (AEPD): Guide on AI-based data processing
(AEPD, March 2020)
ICO: Guidance on AI and data protection
(UK ICO, April 2020)
ICO: Explaining decisions made with AI
(UK ICO, April 2020)
Takeaways from new White House annual report on AI
(IAPP, February 2020)
Europe aims to take global lead with strategies on AI, data
(IAPP, February 2020)
The Privacy Advisor Podcast: How should we interpret the European Commission’s new AI strategy?
(IAPP, February 2020)
AI camera detects COVID-19 fever
(IAPP, March 2020)
The Privacy Advisor Podcast: How should we interpret the European Commission’s new AI strategy?
(IAPP, February 2020)
Frontline Film: In the Age of AI
(IAPP, August 2019)
Accelerating AI with synthetic data
(IAPP, February 2020)
Securiti.ai receives $50M in funding for AI-focused privacy platform
(IAPP, January 2020)
AI a new obstacle for college students in job searches
(IAPP, January 2020)
Forbes and Intel – AI Insights
(Forbes, Intel, August 2019)
Solving Artificial Intelligence’s Privacy Problem
(Field Action Science Reports, August 2019)
Privacy and Freedom of Expression in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
(Privacy International, August 2019)
There’s Nowhere to Hide: Artificial Intelligence and Privacy in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
(The Wilson Center, Synenergene and the Institute for Philosophy & Public Policy, August 2019)
Delivering on Digital Government: Achieving the Promise of Artificial Intelligence
(Center for Digital Government, IBM and NASCIO, August 2019)
Are organizations safeguarding against the risks posed by AI?
(IAPP, December 2019)
Data minimization and privacy-preserving techniques in AI systems
(ICO, August 2019)
Cybersecurity with Artificial Intelligence in 10 Questions
(NormShield, August 2019)
White Paper – Building Ethics into Privacy Frameworks for Big Data and AI
(IAPP, October 2018)
Datatilsynet Report – Artificial intelligence and privacy
(Datatilsynet, March 2018)
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Intro to AI

Brookings Glossary: Artificial intelligence and emerging technology

The Brookings Institution compiled a glossary to define various terms associated with artificial intelligence and emerging technologies. The list of terms and their definitions is drawn from "Turning Point: Policymaking in the Era of Artificial Intelligence," which discusses AI applications across industries and offers policy frameworks for responsible and trustworthy AI deployment. Brookings will provide updates to the list as new terms crop up. Click To View ... Read More

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is a broad term used to describe a process where machines learn from experience, adjusting to new inputs, and potentially performing tasks previously done by humans. More specifically, it is a field of computer science dedicated to simulating intelligent behavior in computers. It may include automated decision-making (see also Machine Learning).... Read More

Ethics

Chinese company develops AI program that predicts when employees will leave job

Chinese company Sangfor Technologies has drawn scrutiny for its AI program that can predict if an employee is about to leave their job, South China Morning Post reports. The program can spy on an employee’s browsing activity, such as viewing job posts and sending application emails. The program came to light after a user on Maimai.cn, a professional networking application, claimed he was fired when his company discovered, using a monitoring system, he was applying to other jobs.Full Story... Read More

Web Conference: Humans in the Loop: Building a Culture of Responsible AI

Original broadcast date: 24 June 2021  In this interactive privacy education web conference we will describe a case study of how the governance structures of an enterprise privacy program can be extended to bring to life “responsible AI”, a growing area of research merging the concepts from privacy, data ethics and new areas, such as explainable AI. The speakers share knowledge of industry best practices and demonstrate methods for assessing risk in AI projects and for developing a framework for responsible AI. Read More

Study looks at advances, long-term impact of AI

A new report from Pew Research Center and Elon University’s Imagining the Internet Center found 68% of responding developers, business and policy leaders, researchers and activists do not believe ethical principles focused on public good will be employed in most AI designs by 2030. The report includes written explanations from professionals, including Google’s Chief Internet Evangelist Vint Cerf, who said, “There will be a good-faith effort, but I am skeptical that the good intentions will neces... Read More

Web Conference: Ethical-AI-by-Design: How Responsible AI Yields a Brighter Tomorrow

Original broadcast date: February 24, 2021  This session will elevate, demystify and discuss the current state of meaningful thought leadership around ethical AI. Our cross-disciplinary panel will review how to incorporate ethical AI principles into the build of products and services to mitigate risk. Absent a holistic legal framework to address ethical AI, how can current legal frameworks inform practical risk and legal guardrails? The panel will break-down technical aspects of AI builds and outline the importance of applied ethics in the AI space, in the same way bioethics anchors considerations around the edgiest of medical advancements. Read More

Ensuring that responsible humans make good AI

We are seeing accelerating expansion in the range and capabilities of machine aids for human decision making and of products and services embodying artificial intelligence and machine learning. AI/ML is already delivering significant societal benefits, including improvements in convenience and quality of life, productivity, efficiency, environmental monitoring and management, and capacity to develop new and innovative products and services. The common feature of "automation applications" — the ... Read More

Podcast: Carissa Véliz on privacy, AI ethics and democracy
(IAPP, December 2020)
The Ethical Use of Personal Data to Build AI Technologies
(Harvard Kennedy School, March 2020)
Artificial Intelligence and Data Protection: Delivering Sustainable AI Accountability in Practice
(CIPL, March 2020)
White Paper – Building Ethics into Privacy Frameworks for Big Data and AI
(IAPP, October 2018)
AI Forum issues guidelines for ‘trustworthy’ use
(IAPP, March 2020)
Facial Recognition: For a debate living up to the challenges
(CNIL, February 2020)
European Commission considering 3- to 5-year ban of facial-recognition tech
(IAPP, January 2020)
London police launch facial-recognition program
(IAPP, February 2020)
Facial-recognition technology: fundamental rights considerations in the context of law enforcement
(European Union Agency For Fundamental Rights, January 2020)
Police use of automated license plate readers under fire
(IAPP, February 2020)
Ethical and societal implications of algorithms, data and artificial intelligence: a roadmap for research
(IAPP, August 2019)
Face Off: Law Enforcement Use of Face Recognition Technology
(Electronic Frontier Foundation, August 2019)
EU aims to regulate AI ethics
(IAPP, April 2019)
EU stresses lawfulness in new ethical AI guidelines
(IAPP, April 2019)
Lawmakers introduce House resolution on ethical AI
(IAPP, March 2019)
AI ethics and moving beyond compliance
(IAPP, January 2019)
CNIL Report – The ethical matters raised by algorithms and artificial intelligence
(CNIL, May 2018)
Ethically Aligned Design: A Vision for Prioritizing Human Wellbeing with Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Systems
(IEEE, July 2017)
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Regulation

CEPS publishes EU AI Act report

The Centre for European Policy Studies published a research paper on the proposed EU Artificial Intelligence Act. The authors said an agreement could be struck by mid-2023, but it may hinge on the ability of co-legislators to "converge on key issues such as the definition of AI, the risk classification and associated regulatory remedies, governance arrangements and enforcement rules.” The paper presents eight major recommendations to avoid overlapping regulations if the AI Act passes, including ... Read More

Sweden's DPA creates pilot program for decentralized AI

Sweden’s data protection authority, the Integritetsskyddsmyndigheten, launched a pilot project with Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Halland and AI Sweden. The IMY will provide the three partners with legal guidance for decentralized artificial intelligence. To get ahead of potential privacy and personal data protection pitfalls using AI, the project will allow the entities to test potential AI uses under IMY supervision.Full Story... Read More

Inside the EU's rocky path to regulate artificial intelligence

In April last year, the European Commission published its ambitious proposal to regulate Artificial Intelligence. The regulation was meant to be the first of its kind, but the progress has been slow so far due to the file's technical, political and juridical complexity. Meanwhile, the EU lost its first-mover advantage as other jurisdictions like China and Brazil have managed to pass their legislation first. As the proposal is entering a crucial year, it is high time to take stock of the state o... Read More

FTC takes steps toward privacy, AI rulemaking

As the debate rages on regarding whether the U.S. Federal Trade Commission should or could begin rulemaking on privacy, the commission has signaled it is not willing to wait for a consensus. On Dec. 10, the FTC filed an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking with the Office of Management and Budget that initiates consideration of a rulemaking process on privacy and artificial intelligence. The filing describes the FTC's intent as seeking to "curb lax security practices, limit privacy abuses, an... Read More

LinkedIn Live: ‘The EU AI Regulation — What’s New and What’s Not?’

Published: May 2021 The proposal for an EU artificial intelligence regulation is major news, with many news outlets citing the regulation’s significant impacts and global consequences. But are these obligations really new or already considered best practice? In this session, ADP Chief Privacy Officer Cécile Georges and Morrison & Foerster Associate Marijn Storm discussed the practical impact of the proposed regulation and some existing best practices that could help cover most requirements.... Read More

Metaverse

Metaverse and privacy

From Facebook's recent decision to rename itself "Meta" to Epic Games' billion-dollar investment in metaverse technologies, the metaverse has dominated the news and will likely continue to do so over the next several years. To date, there is no universally accepted definition for the term "metaverse" and, for many, it suggests a new but undeveloped future of the internet. According to J.P. Morgan, the metaverse is a seamless convergence of our physical and digital lives, creating a unified, virt... Read More

Report highlights key features of metaverse for US Congress to debate

A report compiled by the U.S. Congressional Research Service titled “The Metaverse: Concepts and Issues for Congress” presented several policy issues for lawmakers to consider. The report detailed how technologies such as augmented reality, mixed reality and virtual reality could innovate in a number of capacities, including entertainment, health care, military and engineering. The report included privacy concerns regarding the potential to "collect and monetize personal data" and "track and min... Read More

Machine Learning & Facial Recognition

Machine Learning

A subfield of, or building block for, artificial intelligence (see Artificial Intelligence), machine learning is a problem-solving technique that trains a computer to identify new patterns. It implements various algorithms in a problem-solving process that includes data cleansing, feature selection, training, testing, and validation. Companies and government agencies increasingly deploy machine learning algorithms for tasks such as fraud detection, speech recognition, image classification and ot... Read More

Clearview AI extends database access to US public defenders

Clearview AI has begun allowing public defenders to access its facial recognition database of more than 20 billion facial images, The New York Times reports. The access helped a Florida man prove his innocence against accusations of vehicular homicide. Clearview AI's technology was previously limited to law enforcement, but CEO Hoan Ton-That said public defender access would help "balance the scales of justice." Legal Aid Society's Jerome Greco said the new access is merely an attempt "to push b... Read More

Report: Ukraine's use of facial recognition to identify dead Russian soldiers could backfire

The Ukrainian military’s use of Clearview AI facial recognition to identify dead Russian soldiers may carry negative consequences, warned military technology analysts, The Washington Post reports. Ukraine reported using Clearview AI to scan the faces of more than 8,600 Russian soldiers killed in the invasion. The families of 582 soldiers were directly contacted to inform them of family member deaths, with some outreach including an image of the dead soldier. Some military analysts were concerned... Read More

Report: One in two US adults in a law enforcement facial recognition database

Law enforcement in virtually every U.S. state has access to facial recognition software, Wired reports. It cited a Georgetown Law Center on Privacy and Technology report that said one in two American adults are already in facial recognition databases used to identify criminal suspects. Critics claimed police overuse the technology, as research has demonstrated it misidentifies women and people of color more than white men. In an op-ed for NJ.com, a group of 16 privacy and civil rights organiz... Read More

Facebook to close its facial recognition system, but will it start a paradigm shift?
(IAPP, November 2021)
Will AI and algorithms truly dictate the future of content?
(IAPP, August 2021)
Web Conference: How to Deal with Facial Recognition and Make it Compliant?
(IAPP, June 2021)
Web Conference: More than Face Value: Facial Recognition Technology & Privacy
(IAPP, June 2021)
Assessing proper regulatory models for facial recognition
(IAPP, April 2021)
Facial Recognition Tech and Privacy: Who Are You? Everyone Wants to Know’
(IAPP, April 2021)
Chatbots and privacy rights after death: Once again, life imitates art
(IAPP, April 2021)
Banks begin trialing tech to monitor employees
(IAPP, April 2021)
Facial recognition on rise to authorize mobile payments
(IAPP, April 2021)
The Privacy Expert’s Guide to AI and Machine Learning
(Future of Privacy Forum, March 2021)
Rationalizing Data Science, Machine Learning, and Change Management for Security Leadership
(Threat Stack, January 2021)
Warning Signs: Identifying Privacy and Security Risks to Machine Learning Systems
(Future of Privacy Forum, December 2020)
Training a Machine Learning Model Using Customer Proprietary Data
(Hunton Andrews Kurth, October 2020)
FPF: How to Operationalize Data Protection by Design for Machine Learning
(Future of Privacy Forum, February 2020)
ACLU files class-action vs. Clearview AI under biometric privacy law
(IAPP, May 2020)
NZ police test Clearview AI tech without consultation
(IAPP, May 2020)
Breaches at our front door: What we can learn from Clearview AI
(IAPP, March 2020)
Report: Investors, clients used Clearview AI’s facial-recognition tech
(IAPP, March 2020)
NYT podcast: Kashmir Hill discusses Clearview AI reporting
(IAPP, February 2020)
Web Conference: Machine Language, Artificial Intelligence and Usage Data
(IAPP, September 2020)
Subway facial recognition system raises data security, privacy concerns
(IAPP, June 2020)
Facial recognition to monitor pedestrians at Texas border crossing
(IAPP, February 2020)
Facial-recognition cameras installed at Irish pitch in 2018
(IAPP, February 2020)
Facial-recognition technology: fundamental rights considerations in the context of law enforcement
(European Union Agency For Fundamental Rights, January 2020)
Facial recognition technology: force for good or privacy threat?
(Malwarebytes Labs, January 2020)
China uses DNA to create human facial images
(IAPP, December 2019)
DHS: Privacy Recommendations in Connection with the Use of Facial Recognition Technology
( U.S. Department of Homeland Security, August 2019)
Algorithms, Intelligence, and Learning Oh My
(Privacy International, August 2019)
Platform uses AI, bots to automate compliance practices
(IAPP, August 2019)
How to address new privacy issues raised by artificial intelligence and machine learning
(Brookings, August 2019)
Encryption isn’t enough: Why conversational AI requires more
(IAPP, March 2019)
Security & Privacy Considerations in Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning
(Toward’s Data Science, August 2019)
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