Children's Privacy

Children's Privacy

On this topic page, you can find the IAPP’s collection of coverage, analysis and resources related to children’s privacy.

Featured Resources

Enhancing protections for children’s data

Senior Westin Research Fellow Muge Fazlioglu takes a moment to assess the state of children’s privacy and legislation in the U.S., as Big Tech, Congress and parents try to tackle children’s internet use and privacy.
Read More

A better children’s data governance model

UNICEF published a manifesto establishing a vision for better global governance of children’s data. UNICEF Consultant Emma Day breaks down the manifesto, the current global landscape around data governance for children and why global standards are needed for this area of data protection.
Read More

COPPA’s Next Generation

Regulators around the world are rethinking children’s privacy standards and all online services are affected. This session examined how new regulatory and legislative developments impact product design and compliance.
Read More

Latest News and Resources

A ‘moment like no other’ for children’s privacy

When Kalinda Raina’s 5-year-old started kindergarten last year, she didn’t know how to use her iPad to join a class, submit assignments, take a selfie or show herself on a video call. But she learned all that within the first few weeks of school. Products and services marketed to children and teens have grown drastically in recent years, but the COVID-19 pandemic increased kids’ digital activities at what seemed like lightning speed. Classes, doctor’s appointments, social interactions, even ext... Read More

Google to allow removal of minors' photos from search

The Hill reports Google plans to allow kids age 18 and under to request removal of their images from the company's search engine. The child, or their guardian, will be asked to submit a request form at which point Google will consider the request under its requirements for removal. "We believe this change will help give young people more control over their digital footprint and where their images can be found on Search," Google wrote in its announcement.Full Story... Read More

Companies, governments adding age checks to protect children online

In response to claims that technology companies aren’t doing enough to protect children online, more companies and governments are adding digital age checks online, The New York Times reports. But critics say the changes, some requiring government-issued identification or credit card data, could negatively impact user privacy and anonymity. While those implementing the measures say data protections are in place, Electronic Frontier Foundation Staff Technologist Daly Barnett said, “Either way, th... Read More

Video game developer aims to bolster children's privacy

The Verge reports Epic Games will offer its parent verification services free for all developers in order to make it easier to design games that protect children's privacy and safety. Last September, the video game publisher acquired safe kidtech company SuperAwesome, enabling it to implement its Kids Web Services program. The acquisition allows developers to "verify the identity of parents or guardians when granting their children permission to use features that collect personal information," t... Read More

Privacy of Streaming Apps and Devices: Watching TV that watches us
(Common Sense Media, June 2021)
I-Spy: The Billion Dollar Business of Surveillance Advertising to Kids
(New Economics Foundation, May 2021)
Web Conference: At a Distance and In Your Home: Remote Learning’s Possibilities (and Pitfalls)
(IAPP, May 2021)
Study: 86% of apps removed from Apple, Google stores targeted children
(IAPP, September 2021)
Google, New Mexico reach settlement over children’s privacy claims
(IAPP, October 2021)
Tech companies target children’s privacy as UK design code looms
(IAPP, August 2021)
Google blocks ad targeting aimed at users under 18
(IAPP, August 2021)
Facebook announces targeted ads restrictions for kids, new Data Protection Assessment initiative
(IAPP, July 2021)
US rep. reintroduces children’s privacy bill
(IAPP, July 2021)
Facebook to restrict targeted ads for kids
(IAPP, July 2021)
Report: A rise in AI-based toys threatens children’s privacy
(IAPP, July 2021)
Concerns grow over kids’ debit app’s data collection
(IAPP, July 2021)
Legislators push online platforms to enhance children’s privacy protections and other updates
(IAPP, July 2021)
Researchers: 1 in 5 children’s Google Play apps violate COPPA
(IAPP, June 2021)
Dutch organizations file claim against TikTok over children’s privacy
(IAPP, June 2021)
CNIL offers children’s privacy recommendations
(IAPP, June 2021)
EU gives TikTok deadline to address children’s data concerns
(IAPP, June 2021)
ICO highlights Children’s Code case study
(IAPP, May 2021)
Privacy Pursuit! Games and Activities for Kids
(OPC, May 2021)
Protecting children’s privacy in an increasingly digital world
(IAPP, April 2021)
Keynote: ‘Protecting Children Online: Privacy by Design Approaches’
(IAPP, April 2021)
Can mandatory consent be optional? Processing children’s personal data under Brazil’s LGPD
(IAPP, April 2021)
Appeals court rules Amazon can face children’s privacy claims
(IAPP, April 2021)
Lawmakers urge FTC to investigate Google’s marketing of children’s apps
(IAPP, April 2021)
DPC Report: Fundamentals for a child-oriented approach to data processing
(Irish DPC, March 2021)
Installation of facial recognition in Delhi schools raises privacy fears
(IAPP, March 2021)
Top-10 operational impacts of the CPRA: Part 8 — Rights to delete, no retaliation and children’s privacy
(IAPP, February 2021)
Privacy guidance and resources for schools during COVID-19
(IAPP, December 2020)
COVID-19, privacy, and school recordings
(IAPP, September 2020)
Privacy education for teachers, parents and children
(Canadian Privacy Commissioner, August 2019)
Alexa, teach my kids about privacy’
(IAPP, June 2019)
Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures — Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU
(FRA, May 2019)
Guidance from the Federal Trade Commission — Kids’ Privacy (COPPA)
(FTC, March 2019)
White Paper – Consent for the Collection, Use, and/or Disclosure of Children’s Personal Information
(IAPP, April 2018)
Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule: A Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business
(FTC, August 2017)
View More Resources


The IAPP Resource Center also includes a “Privacy in Education” topic page, which can be accessed here.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

FERPA establishes requirements regarding the privacy protection of student educational records.  It applies to all academic institutions that receive funds under applicable U.S. Department of Education programs.  FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children’s education records.  These rights transfer to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level.  Students to whom the rights have transferred are referred to as “eligible ... Read More

Web Conference: At a Distance and In Your Home: Remote Learning's Possibilities (and Pitfalls)

Original broadcast date: May 19, 2021  In 2020, tens of millions of children in the U.S. participated in distance learning. And, even as many students return to school buildings, remote learning is here to stay, with more schools planning virtual options and use of tech tools in the future. How does remote learning differ from remote work? How can privacy practitioners make sense of a maze of overlapping state and federal student and consumer privacy laws? How can companies protect privacy while ensuring educators have the tools and information, they need to do their jobs effectively from afar? Learn from experts’ real-life experiences of how companies evolve when students start using their products, what districts really want from edtech tools, and how families have adapted to logging on. You will also hear their predictions for the future of learning, plus steps you can take to prepare for it. Read More

Privacy guidance and resources for schools during COVID-19

The pandemic has created an era of uncertainty, especially surrounding the issue of student privacy. Schools now face a constant barrage of questions from administrators, teachers, parents, students and community members requesting information pertaining to COVID-19. Before answering these inquiries, schools must decide what information can be shared, how it can be shared, and with whom any information can be shared in a way that protects the students’ privacy. The pandemic also has resulted in... Read More

NYC, Kinsa partner to distribute smart thermometers in elementary schools
(IAPP, June 2021)
CRS report details FERPA regulations
(IAPP, May 2021)
Student Privacy and Learning Pods: New Education Models in a Pandemic
(Center for Democracy and Technology, November 2020)
Family Online Safety Institute — Useful Tips for Understanding Student Data Privacy
(Family Online Safety Institute, November 2020)
Education during a pandemic: Principles for student data privacy and equity
(Student Privacy Compass, November 2020)
The case for privacy education in K–12
(IAPP, October 2020)
GAO Report — Recent K-12 data breaches show that students are vulnerable to harm
(US Government Accountability Office, October 2020)
Department for Education: Data protection audit report
(ICO, October 2020)
School Surveillance in Context: High School Students’ Perspectives on CCTV, Privacy and Security
(Tel Aviv University and the University Haifa, October 2020)
Student privacy and special education: An educator’s guide during and after COVID-19
(Future of Privacy Forum, October 2020)
Planning for Cybersecurity in Schools: The Human Factor
(Columbus State University, Troy University and Houston County Schools, October 2020)
NPC Guidelines: Filipino online learning
(Philippines’ National Privacy Commission, September 2020)
COVID-19, privacy, and school recordings
(IAPP, September 2020)
Troubling Clouds: Gaps affecting privacy protection in British Columbia’s K–12 education
(BC Freedom of Information and Privacy Association, September 2020)
The Privacy Advisor Podcast: How do we protect kids’ privacy during a COVID-dominated school year?
(IAPP, September 2020)
Connecting Students with Digital Literacy Training
(Center for Democracy and Technology, September 2020)
Shift to online learning ignites student privacy concerns
(IAPP, April 2020)
Without Consent: An analysis of student directory information practices in U.S. schools, and impacts on privacy
(World Privacy Forum, March 2020)
Homeschooling and COVID-19: Parents as Chief Information and Privacy Officers
(Center for Democracy & Technology, March 2020)
FIPPA and online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic
(Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Colombia, March 2020)
FTC: COPPA Guidance for Ed Tech Companies and Schools during the Coronavirus
(FTC, February 2020)
Algorithmic Systems in Education: Incorporating Equity and Fairness When Using Student Data
(Center for Democracy and Technology, August 2019)
A Parent’s Guide to Student Privacy
(Center for Democracy and Technology, August 2019)
School Safety & Privacy: An Animated Introduction
(Future of Privacy Forum, July 2019)
Technological School Safety Initiatives: Considerations to Protect All Students
(Center for Democracy & Technology, July 2019)
Protecting Privacy While Supporting Students Who Change Schools
(Center for Democracy & Technology, July 2019)
The State Student Privacy Report Card
(Parent Coalition for Student Privacy and the Network for Public Education, June 2019)
FAQ — School Resource Officers, School Law Enforcement Units, and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
(U.S. Department of Education, March 2019)
Disclosing Student Information During School Emergencies: A Primer for Schools
(Name, March 2019)
Law Enforcement Access to Student Records: A Guide for School Administrators & Ed Tech Service Providers
(Future of Privacy Forum, September 2017)
State Student Privacy Law Compendium
(Future of Privacy Forum, October 2016)
COPPA in the Classroom
(IAPP, May 2014)
View More Resources

Online Safety and Guidance

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998

A U.S. federal law that applies to the operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children under the age of 13. It also applies to general audience websites and online services that have actual knowledge that they are collecting personal information from children under the age of 13. COPPA requires these website operators: to post a privacy notice on the homepage of the website; provide notice about collection practices to parents; obtain verifiable parental consen... Read More

Privacy Tips for Teens

This guide from Stop.Think.Connect offers quick tips on safety measures teenagers should consider when learning, gaming or connecting with friends online, such as being careful with what information they share online and making sure their devices are securely password-protected. Read More