Children's Privacy


On this topic page, you can find the IAPP’s collection of coverage, analysis and resources related to children’s privacy. The IAPP Resource Center also includes a “Privacy In Education” topic page, which can be accessed here.

Featured Resources

Children’s Privacy and Safety

This book intends to help the practitioner and advocate on their journey to protect children’s data privacy and safety, provide reliable and substantive background on children’s privacy issues.
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The future of youth privacy

Multiple proposed regulations would reform children’s privacy “through the operation of youth design standards” across the world. This articles discusses these standards and take a close look at California’s newly passed Age-Appropriate Design Code Act
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Data protection trends in online gaming

The amount of time children spend online continues to see exponential growth thanks in part to the online game industry, where minors are encouraged to unknowingly exchange personal information. This article highlights key privacy issues in kids online gaming and what policy solutions exist.
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Latest News and Resources

A new frontier in children’s privacy: The DPC’s decision on Instagram’s public-by-default settings

On Sept. 2, Ireland's Data Protection Commission issued a landmark decision concerning the processing of children’s data in connection with the Instagram social media service. The decision, issued to Meta Platforms Ireland Limited (Facebook Ireland Limited at the time of commencement of this inquiry) as the controller in question, found multiple infringements of the EU General Data Protection Regulation across legal basis, data minimization, transparency, data protection by design and default, c... Read More

Irish DPC issues 405M euro children's privacy fine against Instagram

Politico reports Ireland's Data Protection Commission fined Meta's Instagram 405 million euros for children's privacy violations under the EU General Data Protection Regulation. The fine, which is the second-largest GDPR penalty to ever be handed down, covers alleged violations stemming from Instagram's default account settings for children ages 13-17 that exposed email addresses and phone numbers associated with child-operated accounts. The investigation into the allegations began in October 20... Read More

California Age-Appropriate Design Code final passage brings mixed reviews

While U.S. Congress is working to devise appropriate regulations for children's online privacy and content moderation, finalization is not on the immediate horizon. The inaction led the California Legislature to take matters into its own hands with final passage of Assembly Bill 2273, the California Age-Appropriate Design Code Act. The bill, which awaits enactment by Gov. Gavin Newsom, D-Calif., after unanimously passing the State Assembly and Senate, is an online safety bill containing unique ... Read More

Google child abuse image detecting tool reports parents sending medical photos

The New York Times reports a U.S. parent's Google account was suspended after they photographed infections in the private areas of their child for their health care provider to assess. Google's artificial intelligence system for detecting child sexual abuse imagery is used to track down and prevent sharing of such images, but accidental cases as this may be more common, Electronic Frontier Foundation technologist Jon Callas said. Last year, Google filed more than 600,000 reports of child abuse m... Read More

Enhancing protections for children's data

From exacerbating disparities in students through monitoring software to the harms teens are exposed to via dark patterns and algorithms, an increasingly complex batch of privacy problems revolve around the use of children’s data. The publication of “the Facebook Files,” collections of documents recording negative effects of the social media giant with a focus on youth, has only served to push this issue even more front and center. Senior Westin Research Fellow Müge Fazlioglu, CIPP/E, CIPP/US, t... Read More

Streaming platforms juggling to limit children’s data collection
(IAPP, August 2022)
Right away! Data protection for children and adolescents cannot wait
(Opice Blum, August 2022)
US Senate committee advances two children’s privacy bills
(IAPP, July 2022)
Global Platforms, Partial Protections: Design discriminations on social media platforms
(Fairplay, July 2022)
Kids Included: Enabling meaningful child and youth participation within companies in the digital era
(Kids Know Best and Lego, June 2022)
Meta faces large fine from DPC over children’s privacy violations on Instagram
(IAPP, May 2022)
FTC’s edtech vote brings consensus, dispute among commissioners
(IAPP, May 2022)
Discussing children’s privacy and safety with Kalinda Raina
(IAPP, April 2022)
Norwegian DPA issues guidance on minors’ consent
(IAPP, April 2022)
Epic Games, Lego form partnership to develop metaverse with children in mind
(IAPP, April 2022)
Biden’s State of the Union remarks put children’s privacy front and center
(IAPP, March 2022)
Compliance with child protections in India’s Data Protection Bill is a concern to companies
(IAPP, February 2022)
State of Kids’ Privacy Report 2021
(Common Sense Media, November 2021)
Privacy education for teachers, parents and children
(Canadian Privacy Commissioner, January 2022)
A ‘moment like no other’ for children’s privacy
(IAPP, October 2021)
Talking to Your Children About Cybersecurity — It’s Never Too Late
(Kaspersky, September 2021)
Children’s Data Privacy Protections in the U.K.: What to Know and How to Comply
(IAPP, September 2021)
Google to allow removal of minors’ photos from search
(IAPP, October 2021)
Companies, governments adding age checks to protect children online
(IAPP, October 2021)
Video game developer aims to bolster children’s privacy
(IAPP, October 2021)
DPC Report: Fundamentals for a child-oriented approach to data processing
(Irish DPC, December 2021)
What does a better model of data governance for children look like?
(IAPP, July 2021)
Privacy of Streaming Apps and Devices: Watching TV that watches us
(Common Sense Media, June 2021)
Web Conference: COPPA’s Next Generation: Global Children’s Privacy Developments
(IAPP, June 2021)
I-Spy: The Billion Dollar Business of Surveillance Advertising to Kids
(New Economics Foundation, May 2021)
Web Conference: At a Distance and In Your Home: Remote Learning’s Possibilities (and Pitfalls)
(IAPP, May 2021)
Study: 86% of apps removed from Apple, Google stores targeted children
(IAPP, September 2021)
Google, New Mexico reach settlement over children’s privacy claims
(IAPP, October 2021)
Tech companies target children’s privacy as UK design code looms
(IAPP, August 2021)
Google blocks ad targeting aimed at users under 18
(IAPP, August 2021)
Facebook announces targeted ads restrictions for kids, new Data Protection Assessment initiative
(IAPP, July 2021)
US rep. reintroduces children’s privacy bill
(IAPP, July 2021)
Facebook to restrict targeted ads for kids
(IAPP, July 2021)
Report: A rise in AI-based toys threatens children’s privacy
(IAPP, July 2021)
Concerns grow over kids’ debit app’s data collection
(IAPP, July 2021)
Legislators push online platforms to enhance children’s privacy protections and other updates
(IAPP, July 2021)
Researchers: 1 in 5 children’s Google Play apps violate COPPA
(IAPP, June 2021)
Dutch organizations file claim against TikTok over children’s privacy
(IAPP, June 2021)
CNIL offers children’s privacy recommendations
(IAPP, June 2021)
EU gives TikTok deadline to address children’s data concerns
(IAPP, June 2021)
ICO highlights Children’s Code case study
(IAPP, May 2021)
Privacy Pursuit! Games and Activities for Kids
(OPC, May 2021)
Protecting children’s privacy in an increasingly digital world
(IAPP, April 2021)
Keynote: ‘Protecting Children Online: Privacy by Design Approaches’
(IAPP, April 2021)
Can mandatory consent be optional? Processing children’s personal data under Brazil’s LGPD
(IAPP, April 2021)
Appeals court rules Amazon can face children’s privacy claims
(IAPP, April 2021)
Lawmakers urge FTC to investigate Google’s marketing of children’s apps
(IAPP, April 2021)
Installation of facial recognition in Delhi schools raises privacy fears
(IAPP, March 2021)
Top-10 operational impacts of the CPRA: Part 8 — Rights to delete, no retaliation and children’s privacy
(IAPP, February 2021)
Privacy guidance and resources for schools during COVID-19
(IAPP, December 2020)
COVID-19, privacy, and school recordings
(IAPP, September 2020)
Alexa, teach my kids about privacy’
(IAPP, June 2019)
Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures — Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU
(FRA, May 2019)
White Paper – Consent for the Collection, Use, and/or Disclosure of Children’s Personal Information
(IAPP, April 2018)
Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule: A Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business
(FTC, August 2017)
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The IAPP Resource Center also includes a “Privacy in Education” topic page, which can be accessed here.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

FERPA establishes requirements regarding the privacy protection of student educational records.  It applies to all academic institutions that receive funds under applicable U.S. Department of Education programs.  FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children’s education records.  These rights transfer to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level.  Students to whom the rights have transferred are referred to as “eligible ... Read More

NYC, Kinsa partner to distribute smart thermometers in elementary schools
(IAPP, June 2021)
CRS report details FERPA regulations
(IAPP, May 2021)
Web Conference: At a Distance and In Your Home: Remote Learning’s Possibilities (and Pitfalls)
(IAPP, May 2021)
Privacy guidance and resources for schools during COVID-19
(IAPP, December 2020)
Student Privacy and Learning Pods: New Education Models in a Pandemic
(Center for Democracy and Technology, November 2020)
Family Online Safety Institute — Useful Tips for Understanding Student Data Privacy
(Family Online Safety Institute, November 2020)
Education during a pandemic: Principles for student data privacy and equity
(Student Privacy Compass, November 2020)
The case for privacy education in K–12
(IAPP, October 2020)
GAO Report — K-12 data breaches show that students are vulnerable to harm
(US Government Accountability Office, October 2020)
School Surveillance in Context: High School Students’ Perspectives on CCTV, Privacy and Security
(Tel Aviv University and the University Haifa, October 2020)
Student privacy and special education: An educator’s guide during and after COVID-19
(Future of Privacy Forum, October 2020)
Planning for Cybersecurity in Schools: The Human Factor
(Columbus State University, Troy University and Houston County Schools, October 2020)
COVID-19, privacy, and school recordings
(IAPP, September 2020)
Troubling Clouds: Gaps affecting privacy protection in British Columbia’s K–12 education
(BC Freedom of Information and Privacy Association, September 2020)
The Privacy Advisor Podcast: How do we protect kids’ privacy during a COVID-dominated school year?
(IAPP, September 2020)
Connecting Students with Digital Literacy Training
(Center for Democracy and Technology, September 2020)
Shift to online learning ignites student privacy concerns
(IAPP, April 2020)
Without Consent: An analysis of student directory information practices in U.S. schools, and impacts on privacy
(World Privacy Forum, March 2020)
Homeschooling and COVID-19: Parents as Chief Information and Privacy Officers
(Center for Democracy & Technology, March 2020)
FIPPA and online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic
(Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Colombia, March 2020)
FTC: COPPA Guidance for Ed Tech Companies and Schools during the Coronavirus
(FTC, February 2020)
Algorithmic Systems in Education: Incorporating Equity and Fairness When Using Student Data
(Center for Democracy and Technology, August 2019)
A Parent’s Guide to Student Privacy
(Center for Democracy and Technology, August 2019)
School Safety & Privacy: An Animated Introduction
(Future of Privacy Forum, July 2019)
Technological School Safety Initiatives: Considerations to Protect All Students
(Center for Democracy & Technology, July 2019)
Protecting Privacy While Supporting Students Who Change Schools
(Center for Democracy & Technology, July 2019)
The State Student Privacy Report Card
(Parent Coalition for Student Privacy and the Network for Public Education, June 2019)
FAQ — School Resource Officers, School Law Enforcement Units, and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
(U.S. Department of Education, March 2019)
Disclosing Student Information During School Emergencies: A Primer for Schools
(Name, March 2019)
Law Enforcement Access to Student Records: A Guide for School Administrators & Ed Tech Service Providers
(Future of Privacy Forum, September 2017)
COPPA in the Classroom
(IAPP, May 2014)
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Online Safety and Guidance

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998

A U.S. federal law that applies to the operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children under the age of 13. It also applies to general audience websites and online services that have actual knowledge that they are collecting personal information from children under the age of 13. COPPA requires these website operators: to post a privacy notice on the homepage of the website; provide notice about collection practices to parents; obtain verifiable parental consen... Read More

Security firm launches 'Do Not Track Kids' app

Gizmodo reports U.S.-based security firm Disconnect released its "Do Not Track Kids" tool, which provides children's privacy education while simultaneously blocking online tracking of minors. The application can be installed on a device to immediately block the trackers from third-party apps and those sent to email inboxes while also blocking cryptocurrency miners. The app also encrypts and filters domain name systems to shield from telecommunications and internet service provider tracking. Disc... Read More

Tips for Parents on raising Privacy-Savvy Kids
(Stop.Think.Connect, October 2021)
iOS App Report: Surveillance Marketing Still Going Strong
(URL Genius, January 2022)
Privacy education for teachers, parents and children
(OPC, January 2022)
BBB National Programs – Self-Regulatory Guidelines for Children’s Online Privacy Protection
(Better Business Bureau, January 2022)
Privacy Tips for Teens
(Stop.Think.Connect, October 2021)
Back to school tips for playing it safe online
(Privacy Commissioner of Canada, September 2021)
Google blocks ad targeting aimed at users under 18
(IAPP, August 2021)
TikTok privacy and security – Is TikTok safe to use?
(Kaspersky, June 2021)
Guide to Twitch: Twitch safety and security
(Kaspersky, June 2021)
Children’s Online Privacy and Data Protection in Selected European Countries
(U.S. Law Library of Congress, June 2021)
Privacy Pursuit! Games and Activities for Kids
(Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, June 2021)
Safe Space: A Kids Guide to Data Privacy
(CANVAS, May 2021)
Protecting children’s privacy in an increasingly digital world
(IAPP, April 2021)
Youth Privacy & Data Protection 101 Infographic
(Future of Privacy Forum, April 2021)
Risky Business: The Current State of Teen Privacy in the Android App Marketplace
(BBB National Programs, February 2021)
Internet Safety for Children: Tips to Keep Kids Safe Online
(Kaspersky, January 2020)
A study of children’s password practices
(Journal of Cybersecurity, October 2019)
The Privacy Advisor Podcast: How to raise kids in the digital age
(IAPP, April 2018)
Child Safety Online: A Practical Guide for Providers of Social Media and Interactive Services
(U.K. Department for Culture Media & Sport, March 2016)
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