Children's Privacy

Children's Privacy

On this topic page, you can find the IAPP’s collection of coverage, analysis and resources related to children’s privacy. The IAPP Resource Center also includes a “Privacy In Education” topic page, which can be accessed here.

Featured Resources

Children’s Privacy and Safety

This book intends to help the practitioner and advocate on their journey to protect children’s data privacy and safety, provide reliable and substantive background on children’s privacy issues.
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Enhancing protections for children’s data

Senior Westin Research Fellow Muge Fazlioglu takes a moment to assess the state of children’s privacy and legislation in the U.S., as Big Tech, Congress and parents try to tackle children’s internet use and privacy.
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COPPA’s Next Generation

Regulators around the world are rethinking children’s privacy standards and all online services are affected. This session examined how new regulatory and legislative developments impact product design and compliance.
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Latest News and Resources

Discussing children's privacy and safety with Kalinda Raina

In 1998, the U.S. was the first nation to enact a privacy law specifically tailored to protect children’s data. Nearly 25 years later, COPPA — the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act — is one of several children’s privacy and data protection laws around the world. LinkedIn Chief Privacy Officer Kalinda Raina, CIPP/US, first encountered the draft COPPA bill while interning at the Center for Democracy and Technology. In the years since, she has helped lead the privacy efforts at Nintendo and ... Read More

State of Kids' Privacy Report 2021

This report, published by Common Sense Media, provides findings of a five-year evaluation of 200 privacy policies from popular education technology applications and services. The report provides a detailed look at industry practices during this time period. Read More

Meta faces large fine from DPC over children’s privacy violations on Instagram

Meta is facing a "potentially large fine" from Ireland's Data Protection Commission over children’s data processing violations on its Instagram platform, The Irish Times reports. Six European data regulators have refused to support proposed penalties against Instagram and the European Data Protection Board said it received a formal submission, describing it as “the first step in the triggering of the dispute resolution mechanism.” Meta said it continues “to engage with the DPC on all relevant ma... Read More

FTC's edtech vote brings consensus, dispute among commissioners

There has been curiosity about how long it would take the U.S. Federal Trade Commission to delve into privacy matters once it had a full bench of commissioners and a Democratic majority. The answer took only three days as the agenda for the first public session following the swearing in of Alvaro Bedoya as the fifth and final FTC commissioner led off with a privacy vote. Surprisingly, FTC Chair Lina Khan did not see a party line vote on this first action with the full bench as commissioners vot... Read More

A ‘moment like no other’ for children’s privacy

When Kalinda Raina’s 5-year-old started kindergarten last year, she didn’t know how to use her iPad to join a class, submit assignments, take a selfie or show herself on a video call. But she learned all that within the first few weeks of school. Products and services marketed to children and teens have grown drastically in recent years, but the COVID-19 pandemic increased kids’ digital activities at what seemed like lightning speed. Classes, doctor’s appointments, social interactions, even ext... Read More

Norwegian DPA issues guidance on minors’ consent
(IAPP, April 2022)
Epic Games, Lego form partnership to develop metaverse with children in mind
(IAPP, April 2022)
Biden’s State of the Union remarks put children’s privacy front and center
(IAPP, March 2022)
Talking to Your Children About Cybersecurity — It’s Never Too Late
(Kaspersky, September 2021)
Children’s Data Privacy Protections in the U.K.: What to Know and How to Comply
(IAPP, September 2021)
Compliance with child protections in India’s Data Protection Bill is a concern to companies
(IAPP, February 2022)
Google to allow removal of minors’ photos from search
(IAPP, October 2021)
Companies, governments adding age checks to protect children online
(IAPP, October 2021)
Video game developer aims to bolster children’s privacy
(IAPP, October 2021)
DPC Report: Fundamentals for a child-oriented approach to data processing
(Irish DPC, December 2021)
What does a better model of data governance for children look like?
(IAPP, July 2021)
Privacy of Streaming Apps and Devices: Watching TV that watches us
(Common Sense Media, June 2021)
I-Spy: The Billion Dollar Business of Surveillance Advertising to Kids
(New Economics Foundation, May 2021)
Web Conference: At a Distance and In Your Home: Remote Learning’s Possibilities (and Pitfalls)
(IAPP, May 2021)
Study: 86% of apps removed from Apple, Google stores targeted children
(IAPP, September 2021)
Google, New Mexico reach settlement over children’s privacy claims
(IAPP, October 2021)
Tech companies target children’s privacy as UK design code looms
(IAPP, August 2021)
Google blocks ad targeting aimed at users under 18
(IAPP, August 2021)
Facebook announces targeted ads restrictions for kids, new Data Protection Assessment initiative
(IAPP, July 2021)
US rep. reintroduces children’s privacy bill
(IAPP, July 2021)
Facebook to restrict targeted ads for kids
(IAPP, July 2021)
Report: A rise in AI-based toys threatens children’s privacy
(IAPP, July 2021)
Concerns grow over kids’ debit app’s data collection
(IAPP, July 2021)
Legislators push online platforms to enhance children’s privacy protections and other updates
(IAPP, July 2021)
Researchers: 1 in 5 children’s Google Play apps violate COPPA
(IAPP, June 2021)
Dutch organizations file claim against TikTok over children’s privacy
(IAPP, June 2021)
CNIL offers children’s privacy recommendations
(IAPP, June 2021)
EU gives TikTok deadline to address children’s data concerns
(IAPP, June 2021)
ICO highlights Children’s Code case study
(IAPP, May 2021)
Privacy Pursuit! Games and Activities for Kids
(OPC, May 2021)
Protecting children’s privacy in an increasingly digital world
(IAPP, April 2021)
Keynote: ‘Protecting Children Online: Privacy by Design Approaches’
(IAPP, April 2021)
Can mandatory consent be optional? Processing children’s personal data under Brazil’s LGPD
(IAPP, April 2021)
Appeals court rules Amazon can face children’s privacy claims
(IAPP, April 2021)
Lawmakers urge FTC to investigate Google’s marketing of children’s apps
(IAPP, April 2021)
Installation of facial recognition in Delhi schools raises privacy fears
(IAPP, March 2021)
Top-10 operational impacts of the CPRA: Part 8 — Rights to delete, no retaliation and children’s privacy
(IAPP, February 2021)
Privacy guidance and resources for schools during COVID-19
(IAPP, December 2020)
COVID-19, privacy, and school recordings
(IAPP, September 2020)
Privacy education for teachers, parents and children
(Canadian Privacy Commissioner, August 2019)
Alexa, teach my kids about privacy’
(IAPP, June 2019)
Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures — Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU
(FRA, May 2019)
White Paper – Consent for the Collection, Use, and/or Disclosure of Children’s Personal Information
(IAPP, April 2018)
Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule: A Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business
(FTC, August 2017)
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The IAPP Resource Center also includes a “Privacy in Education” topic page, which can be accessed here.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

FERPA establishes requirements regarding the privacy protection of student educational records.  It applies to all academic institutions that receive funds under applicable U.S. Department of Education programs.  FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children’s education records.  These rights transfer to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level.  Students to whom the rights have transferred are referred to as “eligible ... Read More

Web Conference: At a Distance and In Your Home: Remote Learning's Possibilities (and Pitfalls)

Original broadcast date: May 19, 2021  In 2020, tens of millions of children in the U.S. participated in distance learning. And, even as many students return to school buildings, remote learning is here to stay, with more schools planning virtual options and use of tech tools in the future. How does remote learning differ from remote work? How can privacy practitioners make sense of a maze of overlapping state and federal student and consumer privacy laws? How can companies protect privacy while ensuring educators have the tools and information, they need to do their jobs effectively from afar? Learn from experts’ real-life experiences of how companies evolve when students start using their products, what districts really want from edtech tools, and how families have adapted to logging on. You will also hear their predictions for the future of learning, plus steps you can take to prepare for it. Read More

NYC, Kinsa partner to distribute smart thermometers in elementary schools
(IAPP, June 2021)
CRS report details FERPA regulations
(IAPP, May 2021)
Privacy guidance and resources for schools during COVID-19
(IAPP, December 2020)
Student Privacy and Learning Pods: New Education Models in a Pandemic
(Center for Democracy and Technology, November 2020)
Family Online Safety Institute — Useful Tips for Understanding Student Data Privacy
(Family Online Safety Institute, November 2020)
Education during a pandemic: Principles for student data privacy and equity
(Student Privacy Compass, November 2020)
The case for privacy education in K–12
(IAPP, October 2020)
GAO Report — K-12 data breaches show that students are vulnerable to harm
(US Government Accountability Office, October 2020)
School Surveillance in Context: High School Students’ Perspectives on CCTV, Privacy and Security
(Tel Aviv University and the University Haifa, October 2020)
Student privacy and special education: An educator’s guide during and after COVID-19
(Future of Privacy Forum, October 2020)
Planning for Cybersecurity in Schools: The Human Factor
(Columbus State University, Troy University and Houston County Schools, October 2020)
COVID-19, privacy, and school recordings
(IAPP, September 2020)
Troubling Clouds: Gaps affecting privacy protection in British Columbia’s K–12 education
(BC Freedom of Information and Privacy Association, September 2020)
The Privacy Advisor Podcast: How do we protect kids’ privacy during a COVID-dominated school year?
(IAPP, September 2020)
Connecting Students with Digital Literacy Training
(Center for Democracy and Technology, September 2020)
Shift to online learning ignites student privacy concerns
(IAPP, April 2020)
Without Consent: An analysis of student directory information practices in U.S. schools, and impacts on privacy
(World Privacy Forum, March 2020)
Homeschooling and COVID-19: Parents as Chief Information and Privacy Officers
(Center for Democracy & Technology, March 2020)
FIPPA and online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic
(Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Colombia, March 2020)
FTC: COPPA Guidance for Ed Tech Companies and Schools during the Coronavirus
(FTC, February 2020)
Algorithmic Systems in Education: Incorporating Equity and Fairness When Using Student Data
(Center for Democracy and Technology, August 2019)
A Parent’s Guide to Student Privacy
(Center for Democracy and Technology, August 2019)
School Safety & Privacy: An Animated Introduction
(Future of Privacy Forum, July 2019)
Technological School Safety Initiatives: Considerations to Protect All Students
(Center for Democracy & Technology, July 2019)
Protecting Privacy While Supporting Students Who Change Schools
(Center for Democracy & Technology, July 2019)
The State Student Privacy Report Card
(Parent Coalition for Student Privacy and the Network for Public Education, June 2019)
FAQ — School Resource Officers, School Law Enforcement Units, and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
(U.S. Department of Education, March 2019)
Disclosing Student Information During School Emergencies: A Primer for Schools
(Name, March 2019)
Law Enforcement Access to Student Records: A Guide for School Administrators & Ed Tech Service Providers
(Future of Privacy Forum, September 2017)
COPPA in the Classroom
(IAPP, May 2014)
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Online Safety and Guidance

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998

A U.S. federal law that applies to the operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children under the age of 13. It also applies to general audience websites and online services that have actual knowledge that they are collecting personal information from children under the age of 13. COPPA requires these website operators: to post a privacy notice on the homepage of the website; provide notice about collection practices to parents; obtain verifiable parental consen... Read More

Privacy Tips for Teens

This guide from Stop.Think.Connect offers quick tips on safety measures teenagers should consider when learning, gaming or connecting with friends online, such as being careful with what information they share online and making sure their devices are securely password-protected. Read More