You never have a second chance to make a first impression, or so the saying goes. Nowadays, first impressions are increasingly made online. The reality of an online identity is often a double-edged sword. On one hand, a person has the ability to develop a positive profile that could enhance a personal brand. On the other hand, the openness of the Internet inhibits the ability of an individual to control content about oneself. While negative reviews, defamatory comments and unflattering photos can be easily posted on the Internet, removing the content often proves much more challenging. Unsurprisingly, poll data reflects society’s increasing concern for reputation management. In a poll performed by the Pew Internet and American Life Project in May 2010, 57 percent of adult Internet users admitted to using search engines to detect information about themselves. The same poll revealed that four percent of online adults have had bad experiences with “embarrassing or inaccurate information…posted about them online.” While this number may seem small, this means that millions of Americans have been negatively impacted by the “openness” of the Internet.

For this reason, the greatest threat to a person’s reputation and online privacy is Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act (CDA). Enacted in 1996, the legislation provides that “[n]o provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.” Section 230 of the CDA also includes a “Good Samaritan” provision, which provides that “no provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be held liable on account of…any action voluntarily taken in good faith to restrict access to or availability of material that the provider or user considers to be obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, excessively violent, harassing or otherwise objectionable, whether or not such material is constitutionally protected.” The impact of Section 230 cannot be overstated. The law immunizes websites for the content published on their sites. More problematic, the law provides no incentive for websites to remove defamatory and harassing content or a mechanism to ensure compliance with takedown orders.

Among the findings and policies supporting its action, Congress finds the following:

  • The Internet and other interactive computer services offer a forum for a true diversity of political discourse, unique opportunities for cultural development, and myriad avenues for intellectual activity.
  • The Internet and other interactive computer services have flourished, to the benefit of all Americans, with a minimum of government regulation.

It is the policy of the United States . . .

  • to preserve the vibrant and competitive free market that presently exists for the Internet and other interactive computer services, unfettered by Federal or State regulation;
  • to encourage the development of technologies which maximize user control over what information is received by individuals, families, and schools who use the Internet and other interactive computer services;
  • to remove disincentives for the development and utilization of blocking and filtering technologies that empower parents to restrict their children’s access to objectionable or inappropriate online material.

An important basis for Section 230’s implementation is the idea that the Internet was designed to be unregulated. In the almost 20 years since the law was enacted, the Internet has evolved in ways never first imagined. Although it is possible that Section 230 assisted in the Internet’s growth and development, it seems that the Internet no longer needs to be coddled in order to thrive.

Since the enactment of Section 230, the government has regulated aspects of the Internet. In 1998, Congress passed the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) to regulate the amount of information that can be collected from children under the age of 13. In 1998, Congress also passed the On-Line Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act (OCILLA) as part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The law protects Internet service providers from copyright violations created by its users if the Internet providers follow certain procedures. Among the requirements for service providers to obtain “Safe Harbor” protection is to follow take-down notifications. Under the law, Internet providers must remove infringing content upon being notified of the alleged infringement or if the company discovers the infringing content itself. After removing the content, the service provider must notify the individual who posted the allegedly infringing material. If the alleged infringer objects to the content’s removal, the copyright owner must bring a lawsuit in a district court within 10 to 14 days. Otherwise, the content is restored to its location. If an Internet service provider does not follow the law’s procedures, it can be held liable for the copyright infringement of its users.

How could Congress amend Section 230 without infringing upon an individual’s constitutional right to free speech? One approach could be to utilize the framework provided by OCILLA. Under amended legislation, if an individual or company has been harassed or defamed online, they could file an action with a court, likely a state court since harassment and defamation are state actions. In an expedited process, the courts could determine whether the content constitutes harassment or defamation and should be removed. If so, a court would be empowered to order content be taken down. Only if the Internet service provider failed to honor the takedown request would the Internet service provider be liable for the actions of its users. This approach materially differs from the DMCA by mandating that the complainer seek court intervention prior to requiring takedown. However, requiring a court order as a threshold matter would help weed out frivolous claims that would be only filed to chill free speech.

Surely, there are issues with the simple outline of an approach discussed above. Undoubtedly, it would strain resources of the courts that are already stretched. In addition, legal fees and court costs may provide a roadblock to some individuals’ ability to seek redress. However, this solution is certainly better than maintaining the status quo. Anyone who has been affected by Section 230 understands the frustration associated with having Internet service providers immune to liability. Simply, without any incentive to remove content that may have already been deemed defamatory, websites are often unresponsive to takedown requests.

Section 230 of the Communication Decency Act presents a clear danger to Americans’ individual privacy. It impacts the ability for individuals to prevent and stop cyber bullying, cyber harassment and cyber defamation. While the problems of Section 230 have achieved attention, there have been few solutions presented to challenge the status quo. This is unacceptable. As a society, people should have a right to protect their good reputation and to protect themselves from unwarranted invasions of privacy. As a result, amending Section 230 of the CDA should be a priority for privacy professionals, businesses and Congress.

Andrew Bolson, CIPP/US, is an associate with Rubenstein, Meyerson, Fox, Mancinelli & Conte in New Jersey.

Read More by Andrew Bolson:
Maintaining Location Privacy in the Digital Age

Written By

Andrew Bolson, CIPP/US


If you want to comment on this post, you need to login.


Board of Directors

See the esteemed group of leaders shaping the future of the IAPP.

Contact Us

Need someone to talk to? We’re here for you.

IAPP Staff

Looking for someone specific? Visit the staff directory.

Learn more about the IAPP»

Daily Dashboard

The day’s top stories from around the world

Privacy Perspectives

Where the real conversations in privacy happen

The Privacy Advisor

Original reporting and feature articles on the latest privacy developments

Privacy Tracker

Alerts and legal analysis of legislative trends

Privacy Tech

Exploring the technology of privacy

Canada Dashboard Digest

A roundup of the top Canadian privacy news

Europe Data Protection Digest

A roundup of the top European data protection news

Asia-Pacific Dashboard Digest

A roundup of the top privacy news from the Asia-Pacific region

Latin America Dashboard Digest

A roundup of the top privacy news from Latin America

IAPP Westin Research Center

Original works. Groundbreaking research. Emerging scholars.

Get more News »

IAPP Communities

Meet locally with privacy pros, dive deep into specialized topics or connect over common interests. Find your Community in KnowledgeNet Chapters, Sections and Affinity Groups.

IAPP Job Board

Looking for a new challenge, or need to hire your next privacy pro? The IAPP Job Board is the answer.

Join the Privacy List

Have ideas? Need advice? Subscribe to the Privacy List. It’s crowdsourcing, with an exceptional crowd.

Find a KnowledgeNet Chapter Near You

Talk privacy and network with local members at IAPP KnowledgeNet Chapter meetings, taking place worldwide.

Find more ways to Connect »

Find a Privacy Training Class

Two-day privacy training classes are held around the world. See the complete schedule now.

The Privacy Core™ Library Has Evolved

Privacy Core™ e-learning essentials just expanded to include seven new units for marketers. Keep your data safe and your staff in the know!

Online Privacy Training

Build your knowledge. The privacy know-how you need is just a click away.

Upcoming Web Conferences

See our list of upcoming web conferences. Just log on, listen in and learn!

Train Your Team

Get your team up to speed on privacy by bringing IAPP training to your organization.

Let’s Get You DPO Ready

There’s no better time to train than right now! We have all the resources you need to meet the challenges of the GDPR.

Learn more »

CIPP Certification

The global standard for the go-to person for privacy laws, regulations and frameworks

CIPM Certification

The first and only privacy certification for professionals who manage day-to-day operations

CIPT Certification

The industry benchmark for IT professionals worldwide to validate their knowledge of privacy requirements

FIP Designation

Recognizing the advanced knowledge and issue-spotting skills a privacy pro must attain in today’s complex world of data privacy.

Certify Your Staff

Find out how you can bring the world’s only globally recognized privacy certification to a group in your organization.


The IAPP’S CIPP/E and CIPM are the ANSI/ISO-accredited, industry-recognized combination for DPO readiness. Learn more today.

Learn more about IAPP certification »

Are You Ready for the GDPR?

Check out the IAPP's EU Data Protection Reform page for all the tools and resources you need.

IAPP-OneTrust PIA Platform

New U.S. Government Agency privacy impact assessments - free to IAPP members!

IAPP Communities

Meet locally with privacy pros, dive deep into specialized topics or connect over common interests. Find your Community in KnowledgeNet Chapters, Sections and Affinity Groups.

Privacy Vendor List

Find a privacy vendor to meet your needs with our filterable list of global service providers.

More Resources »

Europe Data Protection Intensive 2017

The Intensive is sold out! But cancellations do happen—so hurry and get on the wait list in case more seats become available.

Global Privacy Summit 2017

The world’s premier privacy conference returns with the sharpest minds, unparalleled programs and preeminent networking opportunities.

Canada Privacy Symposium 2017

The Symposium returns to Toronto this spring and registration has opened! Take advantage of Early Bird rates and join your fellow privacy pros for another stellar program.

The Privacy Bar Section Forum 2017

The Privacy Bar Section Forum returns to Washington, DC April 21, delivering renowned keynote speakers and a distinguished panel of legal and privacy experts.

Asia Privacy Forum 2017

The Forum returns to Singapore for exclusive networking and intensive education on data protection trends and challenges in the Asia Pacific region. Call for Speakers open!

Privacy. Security. Risk. 2017

This year, we're bringing P.S.R. to San Diego. The Call for Speakers is now open. Submit today and be a part of something big! Submission deadline: February 26.

Europe Data Protection Congress 2017

European policy debate, multi-level strategic thinking and thought-provoking discussion. The Call for Speakers is open until March 19.

Sponsor an Event

Increase visibility for your organization—check out sponsorship opportunities today.

More Conferences »

Become a Member

Start taking advantage of the many IAPP member benefits today

Corporate Members

See our list of high-profile corporate members—and find out why you should become one, too

Renew Your Membership

Don’t miss out for a minute—continue accessing your benefits

Join the IAPP»